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Michele Mercati called magnesia negra manganesa, and finally the metal isolated from it became known as manganese (German: Mangan).The name magnesia eventually was then used to refer only to the white magnesia alba (magnesium oxide), which provided the name magnesium for the free element when it was isolated much later.
This feminine magnes was later called magnesia, known now in modern times as pyrolusite or manganese dioxide.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron.
Solid compounds of manganese(III) are characterized by its strong purple-red color and a preference for distorted octahedral coordination resulting from the Jahn-Teller effect.
The oxidation state 5 can be produced by dissolving manganese dioxide in molten sodium nitrite.
However, there are a few examples of low-spin, S =1/2 manganese(II).
The 3 oxidation state is known in compounds like manganese(III) acetate, but these are quite powerful oxidizing agents and also prone to disproportionation in solution, forming manganese(II) and manganese(IV).
Neither this mineral nor elemental manganese is magnetic.
In the 16th century, manganese dioxide was called manganesum (note the two Ns instead of one) by glassmakers, possibly as a corruption and concatenation of two words, since alchemists and glassmakers eventually had to differentiate a magnesia negra (the black ore) from magnesia alba (a white ore, also from Magnesia, also useful in glassmaking).
Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.
Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite.
The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Manganese isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology and radiometric dating.